Warnings & Instructions
- General instructions and warnings for projection foils
- General instructions and warnings for flame retardant cotton fabric
- General instructions and warnings for Trevira CS and Polyester FR fibre-based material
- General instructions and warnings for velvets
- General instructions and warnings for Chain Hoists
- General instructions and warnings for protective carpet tile Pallas
- General instructions and warnings for the use, storage and laying of dance and floor surfaces
- General instructions and warnings regarding “Sprinkler suitability”
- General instructions and warnings for flame retardant agents and their application
- General instructions and warnings for adhesive tapes
General instructions and warnings for projection foils
Current version: October 18 2021
Projection surfaces in which both edge lengths are produced larger than the web width of the selected projection films are welded from individual webs of the projection films. This welding is carried out using high-frequency technology. The resulting seams are very fine and invisible or non-disturbing for most applications as described in point 3. The noticeableness of the welds depends essentially on the film type, projection type or direction and does not represent a reduction in value.
- Creases due to folding in storage
Generally projection foils are - if not offered separately - packaged folded up and sent off. In general, these creases disappear after opening and stretching the projection foils on all sides. If it is at all technically possible, projection foils can be sent rolled up too – for an additional fee for packaging and transport. This increases the likelihood of the foils being crease-free, or that the creases will disappear during the recovery process. The recovery process depends on room temperature, assembly stress and time. In the case of remaining visible creases, this does not constitute a reduction in projection foil quality.
Intended use for projection foils
Depending on the type of product used, projection foils are optimised for use in incident or back light projection for customary light incidence angles for video, slide or film projection. A smooth flat surface can only be achieved by stretching the projection foil on all sides with equal tension. The development of ripples and warping does not constitute a reduction in projection foil quality if the projection foil is not tensioned evenly on one or more sides. Use with strip or side lighting: even tension on all sides is mandatory. Visible remaining creases, seams and warping due to tension or assembly do not constitute a reduction in projection foil quality.
Evaluating colour deviations and variations in brightness
Projection foils are manufactured in large-scale PVC industry plants and are subject to strict quality controls. However, there are variations within this industry too. These are very slight and are not noticeable in normal light conditions. These deviations are only visible in certain application conditions. Please note that colour deviations only become visible when the viewing angle corresponding to half-light density is surpassed; this is dependent on technical factors and does not constitute a reduction in quality.
Usage for rolling projection screens
Tüchler ® can provide all projection foils as rolling projection screens with a Superflat (tab-tension) finish. Mounting of projection foils on rolling projection screens by third parties is at your own risk. In this respect. Particularly if non-tensionable (standard welded) screens are used wtih (electric-)rollers waves, pleates or even damages are to expect. Tüchler® remains free from all liability and/or damage compensation claims.
Dimension stability and tolerances
Projection foils are made of thermoplastic material. Therefore, the material’s stretching properties, softness and measurements vary according to changes in room temperature. Thus, cut products are subject to a tolerance of +- 2% at 22°C room temperature.
Use in winter and cold regions
It must be noted that projection foils can cool off significantly during transport. In such cases, open the outer packaging, then wait at least 24 hours at a room temperature of > 21°C before opening the projection foils. At cold temperatures, the projection foil gets stiff, tears easily on moderately sharp edges and may cause irreversible impressions and stress whitening.
Projection foil shelf life
With correct usage and storage at room temperature, you will be able to use your projection foil for many years. Projection foils contain softening agents which are exuded over time. Therefore after a few years, colour change, yellowing, brittleness, oily patches on the surface can occur, and it may tear more easily. These appearances are not defects covered by warranty; these are customary, material-related effects due to aging.
Exclusion of DIN and other photography or cinematography standards
The projection foil has been optimised for use in theatres, opera, events, trade fairs, tours and similar and therefore different types are distinguished by colour, projection behaviour, sturdiness and flammability. The foil was not developed for use in cinemas or similar. Therefore, all evaluations based on norms for projection surfaces, in particular DIN, and claims based thereupon are excluded, unless this was expressly agreed upon in writing.
General instructions and warnings for flame retardant cotton fabric
Current version: 01 January 2014
Unless expressly noted otherwise, cotton fabrics marked flame retardant (hardly flammable) are treated with a semi-permanent flame retardant. This means that as long as the material is not soaked or washed, the flame retardant characteristics will persist. Therefore, soaking or washing will cause the loss of fire retardant characteristics.
Flame retardant characteristics can be maintained through professional dry cleaning without stain removing agents and a low proportion of water. It is mandatory to carry out tests after dry cleaning.
General instructions and warnings for Trevira CS and Polyester FR fibre-based material
Version: 01 January 2014
- Trevira CS and Polyester FR fibre-based material can be washed according to the care label, without loss of fire retardant characteristics.
- The use of fibre-affine care products such as fabric conditioners (Silan) can cause the loss of the material’s flame retardant characteristics!
- Soiling or applying foreign substances (e.g. painting/printing) to the fabric can cause the loss of the material’s flame retardant characteristics!
- Therefore, please make sure you ask an expert to regularly check the cloth’s flame retardant characteristics.
General instructions and warnings for velvets
Version: 01 January 2014
- Packaging and acceptance of stage velvets sold by the metre:
All stage velvets sold by the metre are carefully packed, hanging in transport boxes. In general, the transport boxes are shipped lashed down horizontally on pallets.
WARNING: Upon acceptance, the purchaser must check that the transport boxes are delivered lashed down horizontally on pallets. If this is not the case, he must note this on the shipping documents. If the transport boxes arrive loosely (without being lashed down), it is probable that the boxes were transported or stored vertically.
This leads to irreversible damage to the stage velvets. Noticeable signs are zebra /harmonica-shaped creases and pressure points which repeat in an arch shape along one or both edges.
The shipper/transport company is responsible for such unambiguous transport damages. However, the purchaser can only claim for this if he immediately notes the loose delivery of the boxes in the shipping documents upon delivery or completely refuses acceptance. Even if there is no visible damage on the outside of the boxes, it is possible that damage has occurred to the product! For all further matters, item 10 of the Tüchler Bühnen- & Textiltechnik GmbH General Terms and Conditions applies unmodified.
- Colour accuracy and reflective stripes
Despite due care in the dyeing process, it is not possible to completely avoid minor colour deviations due to technical grounds. This also applies to within one and the same colour portion. Slight colour deviations, especially those which are not or hardly noticeable in velvets used to make curtains with folds, do not constitute a reduction in the quality of the stage velvet. The angle of the pile can vary within a roll of velvet. This is due to technical grounds when winding the velvet, and causes a variation in reflection of the incident light. This can create the false impression that the colour is fading (=slow or continuous change of colour within a roll). This does not constitute a reduction in quality.
From the moment stage velvets are packaged, they are subject to a relaxation process caused by the material’s characteristics. This leads to micro-movements. As stage velvet can only move in one direction, in reaction to the pile on the roll, the rolls lose their circular shape. These non-circular rolls often show a clearly noticeable edge, which creates the impression that the stage velvet was not wound properly. The pile angle on this edge often contrasts significantly with the rest of the velvet roll which has remained round. This regularly causes very noticeable, but reversible reflective stripes. These reflective stripes do not constitute a reduction in quality.
Dependent on room conditions, the pile will realign itself after some time. The consistency and luxuriance of the velvet is only fully re-established after this takes place. This process can often take weeks. If reflective stripes or colour fading due to reflection persist despite a long recovery period, lightly steaming and softly brushing in the direction of the pile can shorten or support the pile recovery process. Please note: This process can take even longer in centrally heated, hot rooms lacking humidity.
- Using velvet in assembly
The pile for velvet curtains is longitudinal. Therefore, it can either be assembled pile “up” or pile “down”. If the customer does not expressly ask for a specific pile direction, Tüchler finishes curtains pile up. This means that the colour appears richer and deeper when observed from a horizontal angle. In all cases, this means that pressure points or reflective stripes are less visible.
If the customer asks for pile down velvet or assembles the velvet in such a way, the customer is responsible for the risk that reflective stripes and pressure points are more visible.
After hanging, finished velvet curtains require time to recover. Dependent on the room climate, the pile only realigns itself after some time. The consistency and luxuriance of the velvet is only fully re-established after this takes place. This process can often take weeks. If reflective stripes or colour fading due to reflection continue to be present despite a long recovery period, lightly steaming and softly brushing in the direction of the pile can shorten or support the pile recovery process. Please note: This process can take even longer in hot rooms lacking humidity.
The appearance and hue of the velvet can vary according to the height of the curtain and the observer’s angle of vision due to varying reflection of light.
- Light fastness
Tüchler velvets are coloured under high standards. This also relates to light fastness. However, please note that no textile is absolutely lightfast. Sunlight damages all dyes and fibres. Therefore, curtains made of stage velvet should be lined, especially if they are exposed to direct sunlight. If the customer does not order lined curtains or lines the curtains themselves, then Tüchler remains free from all liability and/or damage compensation claims.
- Light transmission
Generally speaking, velvet is not a perfect black out material. In daylight, or artificial backlighting, light can shine through so-called pinpricks and other smaller irregularities in the weave. These irregularities are due to construction and do not constitute a reduction in quality of the stage velvet.
General instructions and warnings for Chain Hoists
Please be sure to observe national and regional regulations related to the particular application as these may differ greatly even between EU Member States. TÜCHLER is happy to provide all the technical specifications before you make your purchase. It is the buyer’s responsibility to clarify all the regulation requirements before making their purchase. Tüchler can not be held liable for claims relating to non-compliance with regulation requirements, provided their fulfillment was not agreed to in writing in a separate agreement.
Please note for climbing mode: carrying capacity = nominal load, i.e. own weight incl. chain.
Allgemeine Anwendungs- und Warnhinweise zu Schutzbelag Pallas
General instructions and warnings for protective carpet tile Pallas
Protective carpet tile Pallas was specially developed to be quick and easy to lay and take up and is ideal for both temporary and permanent installations.
The carpet tile Pallas is a protective flooring for hall floors. It protects the hall floor from dirt and moisture (e.g. cigarette ash or spilled drinks during an event in the hall), and absorbs liquids. The carpet tiles will be subject to irreversible wear and tear but will thus prolong the life of your hall floor.
Please observe the load capacity of your floor and do not place heavy objects (e.g. ladders or working platforms) directly and permanently on the carpet tiles. In order to prevent the carpet tiles from warping or lifting at the edges, avoid rolling across them with transport means.
The color may vary between different production batches.
The carpet tiles must be stored in the room where they are to be installed for at least 24 hours. If the Pallas carpet tiles are too cold when they are laid, they could be stiff and retain a so-called “residual tension”, which means that the self-laying property of the carpet tiles is limited and may even be subject to shrinkage afterwards.
Please be sure the room temperature is approx. 18-25 °C with a relative humidity of approx. 50-70% when laying the carpet tiles. Strong temperature variations should be avoided. Suitable floors should be dry, clean, flat and free of cracks, dust, PVC, and wax.
An arrow is printed on the latex bottom side of the carpet tile. The carpet tiles should be installed with all the arrows pointing in the same direction.
If several pallets of carpet tiles are to be laid, they should be laid successively. Failure to do so may lead to the impression of apparent color differences when light falls on the carpet tiles.
Our carpet tiles are characterized by very good self-laying properties and low slip behavior. To ensure the carpet tiles fit perfectly and do not move, the edge regions should be fixed in place with suitable fixing means such as gaffer tape. Double sided tape will damage the latex backing of the carpet tile!
The carpet tiles should be vacuumed to clean them of any loose dirt before they are removed. Only powerful industrial vacuum cleaners with a brush attachment should be used.
We recommend in any case that you clean the entire carpet surface to avoid any visual differences later. If possible, stains should be removed immediately with a fresh, clean, white, slightly damp cotton cloth. A mild cleaning spray can be used for stronger stains.
The carpet tiles must be dry before they are stacked flatly on top of each other with the edges aligned! The carpet tiles should then be stored either on pallets with a flat solid surface or on storage carts available from Tüchler. Max. load capacity approx. 500 kg, (equivalent to approx. 90 carpet tiles or 180 m²). Please observe the maximum carrying capacity of your floor! There is a risk that the weight of the loaded cart may damage the floor!
When storing the carpet tiles, they should not be stacked any higher than 1.1 m. The carpet tiles should be stacked carefully with carpet surface to carpet surface and latex surface to latex surface.
Due to the wide variety of applications and locations where the carpet tiles can be used, we do not assume any responsibility for, cleaning, storage and working conditions that are beyond our control and can not guarantee the installation results.
Allgemeine Anwendungs- und Warnhinweise zu Kettenzügen
General instructions and warnings for the use, storage and laying of dance and floor surfaces
Current version: 01 January 2014
- TÜCHLER- dance and floor surfaces are developed for use in the entertainment industry, for stages, theatres, operas, events and similar. Please pay attention to the rating and instructions! Quality evaluation is therefore only possible with regards to the product-specific function. TÜCHLER- dance and floor surfaces were not developed for use in homes or projects. All evaluations based on applicable norms for floor surfaces or carpets, especially DIN, as well as claims based on these are therefore excluded, unless this was contractually agreed upon in writing in individual cases.
- Smooth, slippery areas on dance surfaces constitute a source of accident risk.
These are primarily caused by:
- the interaction of skin oils and sweat as well as polishing from dancing on the surface
- the use of polishes and wax
- polishing as part of floor care
Therefore, clean the floor regularly and only use suitable products such as TÜCHLER cleaning products, Antistat and Bison.
Never use shine or polishing agents!
Check the floor before dancing for smooth or slippery surfaces and remove these using professional cleaning methods. If the dance floor no longer provides the necessary friction values after several years of use, then the floor needs to be replaced, as its functional lifespan has expired.
- Store your floor surface rolled up and stood vertically or hanging rolled up on tubes, ideally on a TÜCHLER dance surface transport and storage trolley. In the case of horizontal storage of rolls, please use load distributing layers such as styrofoam strips. Never stack more than 4 layers (i.e. a maximum of 3 layers on top of the bottom layer) (ConfiDance and Consor 20m-rolls in 3 layers, i.e. a maximum of 2 layers on top of the bottom layer), as this can deform the core and cause strong pressure points. In the case of proper horizontal storage, pressure lines running perpendicular to the longitudinal can develop which do not constitute a limitation for dancing and therefore do not constitute a reduction in quality.
If you receive the floor surfaces packed in boxes, never stack more than 3 boxes on one another, i.e. 2 boxes on top of the bottommost one.
- Temperatures: dance and floor surfaces are made of thermoplastic PVC. Make sure that the core temperature is over 18°C (Broadway, ColorXHochglanz: min. 22°C) prior to unrolling. Use at lower core temperatures can lead to stiffness and rippling.
There is a danger of breakage at arctic temperatures. Direct sunlight can cause permanent damage and significantly increased friction values.
- Laying instructions for mobile use
Mobile laying is typical for stages, theatres, operas, but also temporary events, games and rehearsal venues, although this temporary use can often last for years. In such cases, the rolls of floor surfaces are rolled out loosely, side by side and then glued with an adhesive strip on the upper side. Please note, that this type of laying does not fulfil the norm in accordance with general floor laying norms. Complaints based on the standard floor laying norms are therefore excluded. Please pay attention that the adhesive tapes wear out quickly when laying a floor in this manner, and need to be changed regularly as the floor can shift, in the case of incorrectly placed or worn out adhesive tape, and water can reach the underside of the flooring during cleaning with water, - rippling is not excluded. The use of floor cleaning machines can lead to accidents and damage to the surface.
- Laying instructions for semi-permanent use
Semi-permanent laying is typical for temporary events, games and rehearsal venues, where no adhesive tape should be visible on the surfaces, although this temporary use can often last for years. In such cases, the rolls of floor surfaces are rolled out loosely, side by side and then glued with double sided adhesive type on the underside. Please note, that this type of laying does not fulfil the norm in accordance with general floor laying norms. Complaints based on standard floor laying norms are therefore excluded. Please pay attention when laying a floor in this manner, that the adhesive tapes can leave traces on the floor underneath, the flooring can form ripples, which need to be removed by reinstallation and water can reach the underside of the flooring. The use of floor cleaning machines can lead to accidents and the destruction of the floor surface.
- Laying instruction for permanent use
Permanent laying type must be in accordance with laying norms and carried out by specialists.
Please take note of the above, to see if this kind of flooring is suitable for permanent use.
Requirements for the underlay
The underlay must be dry, perfectly smooth and free from cracks, as well as non-adhesive materials, layers that may become detached, non-stick chemicals and dust. In the case of cement underlay, the humidity may not surpass 2.5%; in the case of screed, no higher than 0.5%. Please check the relevant floor conditions before laying the floor. Pre-treatment with a primer may be necessary.
Roll out the dance surface on location and leave it to acclimatise for 24 hours at a minimum temperature of 20°C. After the floor has relaxed, cut the flooring, leaving an excess of +5cm on each side.
Fold the floor strips back in the middle and apply adhesive to the underlay using a notched trowel. Press the floor strips in the middle into the adhesive layer, removing any air bubbles and pressing down firmly. We recommend Thomsit K 188E adhesive manufactured by Henkel as an adhesive. Please pay attention to the instructions on the adhesive!
Please note that dance surfaces are thin and unpatterned and that even the smallest unevenness becomes visible on the surface in strip, back or side lighting. This does not constitute any limitation for dancing or reduction in quality.
Hot air welding – recommended for Consor, ConfiDance and Glitter 200 surfaces:
After the adhesive has dried (please take note of drying times for your adhesive) open the joints with a suitable cutter, clean them and remove any remaining adhesive residue. For the Consor dance surface, we exclusively recommend using the TÜCHLER® welding rod. Adjust the hot air to a minimum of 300°C. Prior to final welding, you should find out the right temperature and speed settings on your machine by trial and error.
After the welding seam has cooled, remove the residue in two steps. First remove about half of the residue using a suitable knife or file. Then, after complete cooling, file down the remaining seam portions to floor level. Please note that the welding seams will not be identical to the rest of the floor surface.
Cold welding, recommended for Drosselmeyer + Event dance surfaces:
All of the usual chemicals in the trade can be used. Prior tests must be carried out.
Either clean manually or use a one-brush machine. Vacuum or rub any large quantities of wet residue, such as varnish, dry.
General instructions and warnings regarding “Sprinkler suitability”
Current version: 01 January 2014
The evaluation as being “sprinkler suitable” is carried out by Tüchler according to ÖTI [Institute for Ecology, Technology and Innovation] tests or derived from our company testing methods, which recreate VdS testing regulations, resulting in the conclusion that water distribution is not altered significantly, nor does it cause a significant delay in water passing through the materials.
Please note, for the use of materials under sprinkler systems:
- There are no known internationally recognised EN, DIN, ÖN or other norms regarding the evaluation of sprinkler suitability of these materials.
- The expert opinion of the ÖTI (Institute for Ecology, Technology and Innovation and accredited testing institute for EN fire testing) deems woven materials as sprinkler suitable if they display air dynamic resistance as well as water retention values close to zero.
- For Germany, the requirements from the insurance industry (VDS) can apply. These are not required for all game/performance venues or trade fairs and have no legal basis outside of Germany.
- Therefore, please enquire about local statutory regulations prior to use.
- Prior to use, please ask local authorities for approval.
- Complaints or claims for compensation, arising from the rejection of approval of any kind of materials marked “sprinkler suitable” by Tüchler shall be excluded.
General instructions and warnings for flame retardant agents and their application
Current version: 01 January 2014
- General instructions for use
Prior to treatment, please take note of manufacturing specifications, safety data sheets and warnings.
Only impregnate completely dry, clean materials. In general, you should cover all materials which could be affected by the spray mist. In particular, metals, plugs, electrical and electronic devices and also wood, stone, sensitive textiles and wall coverings can react to the spray. Flame retardant chemicals can cause damage such as rust or discolouration and do not constitute grounds for complaint.
- Carry out testing prior to application
According to current technological standards, there are textiles and floor surfaces, especially those consisting of synthetic fibres or mixtures which cannot be made sufficiently fire retardant. Therefore it is obligatory to carry out prior tests.
- Health and work safety
ECOGARD® flame retardants are chemicals which are harmless for health and the environment. However, due to general work safety and health protection, please take note of the following points: Keep away from children; Keep away from food, drink and animal food; Don’t eat, drink or smoke whilst working; Do not inhale the spray; Wear a mask; Wear protection goggles; Avoid eye contact- in case of contact with eyes, rinse with copious amounts of water – seek medical advice in case of complaints; Seek medical advice in case of ingestion; After finishing work, wash hands, clothes and equipment thoroughly with water; Take note of risk of corrosion to iron and non-ferrous metals (cover these); Prior to disposal, clean container thoroughly with water. Please read the safety data sheet!
- Skin tolerance
ECOGARD® flame retardants are generally well tolerated. Individual cases of allergic reactions are not excluded. Therefore, please avoid permanent skin contact with the product of the material treated with flame retardant. Therefore, treating upholstery is not recommended.
- Please pay attention to official regulations
Please pay attention to local official regulations. The purchaser is responsible for enquiring in good time with the competent authorities regarding required norms and documents. In many cases, official representatives require evidence of expert impregnation by a specialist company such as works certificates. Tüchler or ECOGARD® distribution partners provide these services.
Please take note that there are no general approvals for flame retardants. All certificates serve exclusively to document the principle suitability for a flame retardant for a specific material or material group.
Neither flame retardant nor works certificates may be used as a receipt or evidence of fulfilling norms for the flammability class of impregnated material.
Evidence of flammability classes according to norms are only available for a fee after fire testing the material impregnated with ECOGARD by an accredited testing institution. The purchaser carries the risk for attaining the necessary flammability class.
- Lighter test
Due to reasons of personal safety, the lighter test may only be carried out by trained persons, over non-flammable surfaces, in well-ventilated rooms and exclusively on separated material samples of around 10 x 20 cm side length. Please note that the lighter test does not provide any conclusions regarding the fulfilment of norm related testing!
- Warning after getting wet, washing or dry-cleaning
ECOGARD® flame retardants are water soluble. If the impregnated material gets wet or is washed, ECOGARD ® will dissolve and must be treated again. The flame retardant effect must be checked again after dry cleaning.
- Limitations of the effectiveness of flame retardant impregnation
Flame retardants protect against accidents and small fires caused by carelessness. In the case of large fires, arson, use of fire accelerants such as petrol, materials impregnated with flame retardants fail and will add to the fire load.
- Side effects and liability disclaimer
ECOGARD® products were designed for use on commonly used materials. Dependent on the material, undesired side effects such as: limitation of fastness, such as light fastness/ reduced resistance to rubbing, changes to colour, reduction in strength (tearing/breaking), appearance of corrosion, changes in handling, changes in measurements, changes in soiling behaviour, contour formation due to water drops can occur. Allergic reactions, such as skin irritation, dripping of flame retardant in the case of synthetic fibres, especially acrylic materials, may occur. Refunds and compensation claims based on the aforementioned or similar effects are excluded, regardless of the time period between the occurrence of the undesired side effect and impregnation.
- Impregnating materials by TÜCHLER
Purchaser warranty claims in accordance with the terms and conditions only apply in the case of written approval provided by TÜCHLER of the objects (materials) to be impregnated and of other objects (materials) in close proximity. In all other cases, the risk of changes to colour, measurements or any other changes, as well as the fulfilment of respective norms for the material impregnated by the seller as well as of other objects (materials) in close proximity are the responsibility of the purchaser. The abovementioned items, in particular items 5 and 9, apply in full.
After impregnation, TÜCHLER issues a works certificate regarding the impregnation work. Please note that this certificate is not deemed as evidence for the fulfilment of norms for flammability classes for the impregnated materials. The recognition of this certificate is at the discretion of the official authorities. Evidence of flammability classes according to norms are only available for a fee after fire testing the material impregnated with ECOGARD by an accredited testing institution. The purchaser carries the risk for attaining the necessary flammability class, as well as the cost for any further impregnation and follow-up testing.
General instructions and warnings for adhesive tapes
Version: 01 January 2014
- Please note that the ratings are based on comparisons with other products within our product range.
- Please note that all adhesive tapes, even those with the best rating, can leave behind adhesive residue, dependent on the surface, pressure, mechanical stress and duration of use.
- Please note that adhesive tapes age in storage (>1-2 years) dependent on the temperature, causing their characteristics, especially in terms of adhesiveness and residue behaviour, to change.
- Please note that natural stone floors in particular, often absorb chemical components in the glue, which can cause dark stripes on the stone which cannot be removed or take a long time to fade.
- Always remove all the adhesive tapes by pulling steadily. Sudden tearing off the adhesive tape leads to increased adhesive residue and favours damage to the underlay as pieces of material may become detached. Please pay special attention to varnished and laminated wooden flooring, as well as sensitive surfaces.
- Prior to application, always test the product:
- on the individual underlays
- according to the planned duration of use of an adhesive
- under the planned mechanical load
- under the planned mechanical pressure
- Adhesive residue and other results due to the typical characteristics of adhesive type are non-refundable. In any case, damage claims are also excluded.